Cryptocurrency mining in Europe: Opportunities, challenges and prospects

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Cryptocurrency mining is the process of verifying transactions and adding them to the public ledger known as the blockchain. It is also the process by which new "coins" are put into circulation. In Europe, cryptocurrency mining is developing ambiguously: each country has its own methods of regulating and taxing this activity.

Features of mining in Europe

Europe is characterised by a high level of technological development and good infrastructure, which creates favourable conditions for cryptocurrency mining. However, the cost of electricity, which is one of the main expenses in mining, varies significantly across the continent. Countries with cheap electricity, such as Iceland and some Scandinavian states, attract more miners due to low operating costs. While in countries with high electricity costs, there is less interest in mining.

Regulation of mining

Regulation of mining in Europe varies greatly from country to country and does not have a unified strategy. Some countries, such as Germany and France, have implemented strict regulations and licensing requirements for mining activities. Others, such as Estonia, have taken a more liberal approach, offering attractive conditions for cryptocurrency companies and miners.

Impact on the power grid

Cryptocurrency mining has a significant impact on the energy grid, especially in regions with a high concentration of mining farms. In some cases, this has led to increased electricity consumption, raising concerns about sustainability and environmental impact. In response to these challenges, many miners in Europe have begun to look for ways to utilise renewable energy sources to reduce the carbon footprint of their operations.

Types of cryptocurrency mining farms

Professional miners use specialised equipment to mine cryptocurrency, instead of regular computers, these are regs and farms.

A mining reg is a device consisting of various pieces of computer hardware (video card, motherboard, power supply and more) designed for cryptocurrency mining. Several regs can be combined into one farm.

A cryptocurrency farm is a collection of devices working together to perform the calculations required to mine cryptocurrency.

Broadly speaking, a farm can be any mechanism for mining digital currency. Among professional miners, there are three main types of farms:

Farms based on graphics adapters (video cards)

For cryptocurrency mining, several video cards are usually used, at least 4-5. The advantage of such farms is that video cards can be easily reconfigured to work with different algorithms of cryptocurrency mining, in addition, they have a manufacturer's warranty, which reduces costs.

This type of farm has almost ceased to be used for bitcoin mining, but is actively used for mining other cryptocurrencies.

Farms based on FPGA modules

FPGA (field-programmable gate array) are programmable devices specifically designed for cryptocurrency mining. They can be manually configured to perform specific tasks.

The performance of FPGA modules is comparable to video cards, but they are less demanding on cooling.

ASIC-based farms

These farms use special chips rather than video adapters to perform tasks. ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) chips are designed specifically for cryptocurrency mining, so the farm consumes less power and its performance increases.

It is not necessary to assemble such farms yourself, but their disadvantage is regular overheating, which requires equipment to cool the chips. Another disadvantage is the high noise level, which makes it problematic to use such farms in domestic conditions.

What does a crypto farm look like?

Alternative methods of cryptocurrency mining

Mining on a hard disc

Some blockchain projects provide an opportunity to use the hard disk drive (HDD) of a computer to mine cryptocurrency. This mining method uses free space on the hard drive. It will require a computer with a large amount of memory (several terabytes) and specialised software.

Mining using a central processing unit

Some algorithms allow you to use your computer's central processing unit (CPU) to mine cryptocurrency.

Browser mining

Some cryptocurrencies can be mined directly through a browser, using scripts that utilise the computing power of website visitors. This method can significantly reduce hardware and energy costs for cryptocurrency miners.

Participating in network support

Some blockchain algorithms require master network nodes with special powers to maintain the system. While this is not actually cryptocurrency mining, it represents a way of investing in cryptocurrency through the maintenance of network nodes.

The process of issuing cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency issuance is the solution of a certain mathematical problem with a predetermined complexity. For example, in the bitcoin network, it takes about 9-10 minutes on average to solve the problem. Once the problem is successfully solved, the computing device that performed the task adds a block of transactions to the blockchain. For this work, the miner is rewarded by the system in the form of new coins that did not previously exist in the system, as well as rewards for the transactions he or she added to the blockchain.

Ways to determine the current value of a cryptocurrency

Each cryptocurrency uses its own unique encryption algorithm, but to ensure the security of the blockchain, the process of cryptocurrency creation is controlled by consensus algorithms. The two most common consensus algorithms are Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake (PoS).

The PoW algorithm ensures a fair distribution of assets in the network and protects the blockchain from potential threats. Cryptocurrency miners must solve complex mathematical problems to verify and record transactions on the blockchain. Profits depend on the power of the hardware.

The PoS algorithm prioritises the investment capacity of a cryptocurrency miner. Users store cryptocurrency and keep the blockchain running. Profits depend on the number of coins in the wallet and constant synchronisation with the network. The longer the user keeps the assets, the higher their profitability.

Choosing a wallet for mining

When choosing a wallet software, special attention should be paid to availability and compatibility with operating systems such as iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Linux, Windows, and others. Miners have access to the following types of wallets:

  • Thick or "full" wallets load all blocks from the inception of the network along with transactions. They load new information each time they run.
  • "Thin" wallets store data on the developer's servers and sometimes request full nodes. They take up less disc space than "full" wallets.

Mobile clients are adapted for touchscreen displays and offer additional features such as tracking transactions by QR codes and monitoring rates on cryptocurrency exchanges. Only "thin" clients are available on mobile devices.

Online wallets work through specialised web resources and do not require installation, and you can start working with them after registration.

How to mine cryptocurrency?

Equipment for mining

Previously, successful mining required equipment including video cards, motherboard, processor, RAM, permanent memory, and power supply. However, over time, the requirements have become more complex and the efficiency of mining now depends on computing power and power consumption.

Programmes for mining

There are many programmes for cryptocurrency mining, and the choice depends on the configuration and processing power of the user's computer. A simple option is to use cloud mining, where computing resources are rented or purchased from specialised companies. However, the cost of such mining can be high.

Choosing a cryptocurrency for mining

Determining which cryptocurrency to choose for mining is a difficult task. The cryptocurrency market has formed only in recent years and is constantly changing, with new types of virtual money appearing. This makes it difficult to accurately predict the development of the market.

Every year it becomes more and more difficult for miners to make a profit by mining the most popular cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoins or ether. In this regard, it is worth paying attention to less promoted virtual currencies.

The potential of mining

With the increasing popularity of cryptocurrencies, mining is becoming more and more difficult due to increased competition and the influx of financial resources into this segment. Mining alone is becoming unprofitable and there is a risk that some cryptocurrencies may restrict the ability to mine.

Potential earnings

It is extremely difficult to determine the potential earnings from mining due to many factors, including the current cryptocurrency exchange rate, investment in mining, the number of participants in the process and others. The payback period for investing in mining is increasing due to the growth of the overall market capitalisation.

Mining without investment

Currently, serious mining without investment seems unlikely. However, some companies offer cloud mining services with various attractive offers. There are also cryptocurrency faucets that provide small amounts of cryptocurrency for visiting advertising sites.

Risks of investing

The cryptocurrency market is known for its volatility, where even currencies like bitcoin have experienced significant price drops more than once. There are no guarantees that the currency will recover after a collapse, making investing in cryptocurrencies risky.

Potential problems

The main problems of cryptocurrencies are related to their uncertain legal status, which can vary from country to country, as well as the unstable level of trust in them. These factors could seriously hamper the further development of cryptocurrencies.

Inefficiencies in energy consumption

With the emergence of major players in the mining market, the efficiency of cryptocurrency mining has drastically decreased due to the large financial resources required to compete. At the same time, the revenue from mining often does not cover the costs, especially for electricity.

Inequality between participants

Each year, the reward for mining decreases due to an increase in the overall computing power of the network, making earlier stages of mining more profitable than later stages. This creates inequality between participants in mining.


Cryptocurrency mining in Europe is a complex and rapidly evolving industry facing many challenges and opportunities. Regulation, energy costs and environmental sustainability play a key role in the future of this industry. Mining will continue to adapt to the changing environment, striving for a more sustainable and responsible approach.


What is cryptocurrency mining?

Cryptocurrency mining is the process of confirming transactions and entering them into the public ledger known as the blockchain. It also involves releasing new coins into circulation. This process is carried out using specialised hardware that solves complex mathematical problems. When a miner solves such a problem, he or she temporarily becomes part of the cryptocurrency network, gaining the right to add a new block of transactions to the blockchain and usually receiving a certain amount of cryptocurrency as a reward.

There are various methods of mining, including:

  • Proof of Work (PoW): This is the very first and most common consensus mechanism, requiring significant computing resources and power consumption. Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies use this method.
  • Proof of Stake (PoS): Unlike PoW, mining in networks with a PoS mechanism does not require significant computing power. Instead, the share in the system (number of coins) is used as a means of selecting participants who will confirm transaction blocks. This method is considered more energy efficient.
  • Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS): A variation of PoS in which coin owners vote for "delegates" who will confirm transactions and create blocks.

Cryptocurrency mining can be either individual or collective (in pools), where miners pool their computing power to increase the chances of successfully creating a block and receiving a reward, which is then divided among the pool members in proportion to their contribution.

What is cloud mining?

Cloud mining is a cryptocurrency mining process in which a user rents computing power from remote data centres to mine cryptocurrency without having to personally purchase and maintain physical hardware and software. This allows users to participate in mining without having to invest in expensive equipment, take care of its maintenance, and pay high energy bills that are an integral part of the mining process.

In cloud mining, the user contracts with a cloud mining service provider for a certain period of time and selects the desired power (e.g. in hash rates for bitcoin). The cloud mining service provider has physical data centres located in different parts of the world that mine cryptocurrency on behalf of the customer. In return, the customer pays rent and possibly a share in electricity and maintenance costs. The revenue from the mining is split between the service provider and the customer according to the terms of the contract.

However, you should be careful when choosing a cloud mining service provider as there are many fraudulent schemes disguised as cloud mining offers. It is important to thoroughly research the company's reputation, terms of service and feedback from other users before investing money.

Which European countries are leaders in mining?

Until recently, cryptocurrency mining dominated in China, but after the country's authorities imposed strict restrictions on cryptocurrency mining and trading in 2021, many miners started to move to other countries, including Europe. There are no clear leaders in cryptocurrency mining on the European continent, as the situation changes quite quickly, and much depends on the cost of electricity, climatic conditions, regulatory framework and availability of infrastructure. However, some countries attract miners more than others.

  • Iceland has become a popular mining destination due to its low temperatures, which reduces the cost of cooling equipment, and abundance of renewable energy sources (geothermal and hydropower), which makes electricity relatively cheap and environmentally friendly.
  • Norway is also attractive to miners because of the availability of cheap and clean electricity from hydroelectric power plants.
  • Sweden and Finland attract miners for the same reasons as Iceland and Norway - low temperatures and the availability of renewable energy.

These countries are also favourable for mining because of their political stability and well-developed infrastructure. However, it is important to note that the regulatory situation for cryptocurrencies and mining in Europe is constantly evolving, and new legislative initiatives may affect the attractiveness of these and other countries for mining.

It is also important to consider that in certain European countries, such as Germany and France, high electricity costs and strict regulation may make mining less attractive despite the significant interest in cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology in general.

The mining industry continues to evolve and the factors influencing the choice of location for mining may change. These include changes in legislation, the volatility of cryptocurrency prices, the availability and cost of electricity and developments in mining technology.

Jonathan Rowe

Jonathan Rowe

The creator and main author of the site is Jonathan Rowe. Trader and investor with many years of experience. A graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with over a decade of experience developing applications for financial and investment institutions.

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